For many years, the textbooks they wrote that the benefits of light and electricity have been given by Thomas Edison, while a genius whose innovative technology of Nikola Tesla who surprised and continue to amaze the world are relegated to a few shelves.
Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943), perhaps more than anyone else, It reversed this approach, but his pioneering research in the field of electricity is only part of the scientific and technical innovations that can be written in the scientific pantheon of deities.
Tesla has expanded and revolutionized the work of his predecessors but, producing beautiful music is not enough to become an idol of rock, well in science, to become an idol, you need something more innovative and extraordinary discoveries machines. A figure must have intriguing quality aspects such eccentricities, visionary and thirst to engage in all science and his work. Nikola Tesla was just such a person.
He saw the potential
at a time when, When scientists and engineers built their business empires on the basis of one or two discoveries, Tesla's attention never deviated from his job. He was prolific and sometimes poor.
Unlike Edison, he did not work on the public reputation, He has published his findings and has built a business empire. In general, his work went beyond the comprehension of many of his contemporaries.
Like any inventor who changed the world, Tesla was a visionary man and his career went more smoothly when he could convey this vision to other pioneers. In 1893, his proposal to use AC power instead of the constant stream of Edison won the competition for the Columbian Exposition in Chicago covering the world (Chicago Worldwide Fair). This time not only became a turning point in the war between alternating and direct voltage, but it has also enabled Tesla to build its most ambitious ideas, including childhood dream to use the energy of Niagara Falls.
Even after winning the contract Niagara, most of his supporters doubted that Tesla hydroelectric plant would work. The inventor was confident of the contrary. When the switch was turned on at midnight 16 November 1896, the lights were turned on in Buffalo, a 34 kilometers from New York. A couple of years later, the station has extended its influence in New York, that was 644 kilometers from it. The dream of Tesla's childhood had come true.
Tesla also suggested to check, or at least to catalyze, time using electricity. He saw the possibility of transmitting energy worldwide and with it information: the first glimpses of a global wireless communication system. The scientist said the investor J.P. Morgan (JP Morgan): “When the wireless network will be fully distributed on Earth, It will turn into a huge brain, able to receive a response from every part of it” I do not know you but to me resembles the current internet description.
The death ray
We were planning “a beam that can shoot down planes from the sky for hundreds of kilometers and make a day very Infantry, very ugly”.
Among the gathering clouds of World War II, Tesla announced that it was planning a new weapon – the “peace within” – that he could end the war. He saw in his device, we know today as a stream of charged particles, something like a “Chinese wall”, an antiwar device that would protect national borders. But the newspapers have got it all wrong. Here, for example, the title that appeared on the front page of The New York Times on July 11 1934: “Tesla age 78 years he conceived a new” death ray ” that "would have dropped millions of armies in their path". What was that invention?
military weapon that accelerates particles of mercury 48 times the speed of sound within a vacuum chamber and shoots a high-speed beam through the open air, with high energy that would bring down a fleet of 10 thousand enemy aircraft in a remote 400 Km.
Although the press called him the "death ray", Tesla considered it a "peace ray" that could counter the air strikes and the invaders and save lives by acting as an invisible Chinese wall, but far more impenetrable. Tesla offeredvolunteer for the project of his weapon Particle beam to numerous governments, including the United States, but the only country that showed interest was the Soviet Union, which led to a partial test in 1939. Another great character who came to build a system capable of generating the infamous "death ray" was the Italian Guglielmo Marconi. Involuntary Witness Mussolini's wife, that, in his book "Mussolini Private" describes an important experiment conducted towards the end of June 1936 on the road that led from Rome to Ostia.
A unit of measure
Tesla, come Karl Friedrich Gauss, He left his name for the name of the unit of magnetic flux density in the International System of Units (AND). Tesla may also be considered as a unit of magnetic induction. Once, high frequency currents were known as Tesla currents.
A Tesla equals a Weber per square meter or 10.000 Gauss (which means that scientists often use Gauss to measure weak magnetic fields, leaving Tesla stronger and those used in magnetic resonance imaging. Weber is a unit of magnetic flux that can be considered as the amount of magnetic energy flowing through a region, for example the surface of a magnet.
Weber was named in honor of William Edward Weber, a German physicist known for his work in the field of terrestrial magnetism and the invention of the electromagnetic telegraph in 1833.
The work of the scientists in this area was prompted by his desire to transmit energy wirelessly, or what the radio is essentially.
Tesla not only recorded the first radio patents, but also he held a conference in 1893 (two years before Marconi began experimenting with radio), during which he spoke of how the transmission and demonstrated radio communications. In mid 1894, He had built and began testing a small portable radio station.
As for the induction generator and the transformer, Tesla relied on the work of his predecessors, but with unprecedented foresight. James Clerk Maxwell suggested the existence of electromagnetic waves, Heinrich Hertz has figured out how to transmit it, but the Tesla coil and four Tesla resonant circuits for transmitting and receiving radio made a reality. His patents describe the basic methods that we still use when you send and receive radio signals.
Tesla became a pioneer of the radio control: He patented this idea on November 8 1898 and demonstrated at Madison Square Garden Electric Show in the same year.
Like any great scientist of any Bond, every god of science respecting needs a secret laboratory preferably in some hidden place and full of crazy machines. Tesla had a couple.
In 1899, Tesla built a laboratory in Colorado Springs to understand the secrets of the high voltage and high frequency electricity. In one experiment, metal trees 13 meters have posted strong electric pulse to the ground; in an other, a Tesla coil shot an electricity arc 30,5 meters throughout the room. The latter broke the Dynamo electric company and have plunged into darkness Colorado Springs.
Mentre a Colorado Springs, Tesla has shown the existence of terrestrial stationary waves (with which the Earth energy could lead to certain electrical frequencies) to light 200 lamps 40 kilometers from there. As we know (differently from the film “Prestige”), Tesla has never worked to teleport a person.
Later Tesla built his second secret lab, the Wardencliff, closer to his home in Manhattan. The Shoreham Factory, Long Island, He had a transmission tower 50 tons and 57 meters, deep 36,6 meters underground, with 16 iron pipes recessed 91,4 meters into the ground. Tesla designed to transfer energy through the planet, using auctions to “get control of the Earth so that the globe became a thrill”.
A tragic fate
Tesla, He fought in an unequal battle with wealthy businessmen and experts: with Edison, who smeared his name and stole his fame; with Marconi, that robbed him of the radio market and received the Nobel Prize for stolen technology; with the industrialist George Westinghouse, who built an empire on its patents.
Tesla's loyalty to his first love, science and progress, She costs him fame, luck and, as some believe, sanity. It is likely that after losing the funding and J.P.Morgan, at the same time, his dreams Vordencliffe (torre Wireless), Tesla has had his first nervous breakdown. “This is not a dream”, he said. “It's only enterprise of scientific electrical engineering in a blind world, coward and doubtful.”
He electrified the world
the generating system, motors and transformers Tesla feeds the global industry, It brings light into our homes and is the most modern electronics based. Edison, although it was better known, He left us alone DC systems, that today are primarily used in batteries and accumulators.
The constant current made nervous Edison, because he could not find a way to transmit long distance. He struggled to convert alternating current generated by his dynamo DC. The solution included Edison “switches”: brushes that allow current to flow in only one direction, but created friction inefficient and required frequent replacement.
Tesla generators did not need such a clumsy approach. Furthermore, his raising the voltage system to transmit the current over long distances, and then lowered again to make possible the use of power in homes and factories.
While Edison and others have tried to work with the current, Tesla has made a revolution by adding a second circuit that would “alternate” the current in phase, creating a prototype of a successful multi-phase system.
The transformer, as the generator, It was invented by Michael Faraday, but both remained in a deep box until Tesla released their potential and exploited electricity transforming the world as it is now.
10 Little known facts of Tesla's life
Nikola Tesla, stands out not only for the brightness of his mind, but for some features of his character and his lifestyle, often very extravagant.
This is not an insult to the memory of a great man, but only a statement of fact. Among others of his time, Tesla stands out not only for its scientific and engineering talent, but also for the personal habits, the rites and beliefs.
It is possible that if Tesla were alive today, It would have been diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder or a similar syndrome, but at that time many of his oddities were simply attributed to its original or to a mild mental illness.
Not everything that is said here only testifies to the scientist's weirdness. Something is an example of the highest intelligence and dedication to work, and some is even evidence of the sacrifices made by Tesla during his exceptional career.
10 facts set out below determined the course of Tesla's daily life, They accompanied his every act and turned Tesla in person that his contemporaries knew.
1. A total of three
Tesla believed in the magic of the number 3. This belief was in the nature of an obsession.
They said that Tesla was often around the perimeter three times before entering the building and asked to bring every night 18 napkins (the number is divided by 3) to clean silver and clean the glasses.
His death occurred alone 3 days before his 87 Th birthday in the room 3327 (number divided by 3) al 33 Floor of the New Yorker Hotel, where he lived in recent years.
2. The important people do not sleep
They say that as Leonardo da Vinci, Tesla slept in fits and starts, no more than two hours at a time.
Tesla working in his laboratory.
Tesla to work in a laboratory in Colorado.
Did the program work in such a way that could often be seen at the table after 3 of the morning. resting, Tesla came back to work. They say a Tesla once worked for 84 hours later.
Not getting what can be called a normal night's sleep, by his own admission “periodically he fell into a sleep”.
3. Queen bee
Tesla has made many predictions about our time, among which, in particular, the appearance of flying machines that will replace cars, obviously, the transmission of wireless energy and a change in the social status of women.
In 1926, indeed, He predicted the film scene “water queen”, realized in 1955, in which, overcoming all obstacles, women create a more rational and perfect society.
“The women's struggle for gender equality will end with the advent of a new order, when the dominant role moves to the female. “A modern woman, which starts at the subconscious level to feel the inevitability of imminent changes in the social role of its kind, it is only a superficial sign of something deeper and more powerful, that emerges in the depths of life.”
“A woman begins to assert his equality, and then the superiority, not through petty physical imitation of a man, but through the awakening of his intellect.”
“From the beginning, for countless generations, social subordination of women has naturally led to partial atrophy, or at least a hereditary delay in the development of mental qualities, that, as we know now, Women should be provided with no less than men”.
“But the female mind has demonstrated the same ability to capture and intellectual achievement than male. As the generations change, the average woman will reach the average level of education of man, and then surpass, the dormant capacity of his brain will be stimulated activity, that after centuries of sleep will be particularly intense and powerful. Ignoring precedent, women amaze civilization with their development. “
“The women's penetration into new areas of activity, the gradual seizure of leadership on their part will also be seamless, but eventually dissipate the vulnerability of women, stifle the maternal instinct, so that marriage and motherhood can become disgusting and human civilization will always be stronger closer to the perfect civilization of bees “.
Tesla was not afraid of their predictions about the future, the she accepted, believing that this would lead to an organization almost perfect society through selective breeding and a reduction in the number of people without value.
4. Healthy Lifestyle
Tesla believed, and many modern medical experts would agree, that a healthy body strengthens the health of the mind. Therefore, He walked every day 16 Km and is always kept in great shape.
The night before going to bed, Tesla completed his walks with exercises, rotate the feet of both legs 100 times. He was sure that this will stimulate the work of brain cells.
In the last years of his life, Tesla has even become a vegetarian and ate only milk, pane, honey and vegetable juices, believing that such a diet would bring great benefits to his health.
5. The appearance is important
No less the need for a healthy lifestyle, Tesla was convinced of the importance of appearance, both her that its employees.
Always elegantly dressed and well groomed, Tesla understood that the world accepts a person by his looks and a perfect look helps to open many doors.
Tesla was so adamant in his beliefs that once fired the secretary for being overweight, and he could mandarne more often at home, forcing them to dress with taste.
6. celibacy Rating
Tesla decided to live in celibacy. It's true, They say that Tesla had women who were ready to fall at his feet, blinded by the splendor of his fame and wealth rising periodically. But Tesla has made his choice, believing that sex does not contribute to clarity of thought, and that chastity would bring great benefits to his scientific work.
Tesla with an unknown woman.
However, at the end of his life, Tesla has questioned his choice, wondering if he had sacrificed too much for the job, abandoning his wife.
7. Love for pigeons
Having decided to stay away from women and marriage, according to some publications Tesla loved pigeons deal.
Towards the end of his life, Tesla went every day to the park to feed to your favorites. Sometimes, picking up a sick bird, She took him to the hotel and gave it to the nurse.
He argued that a wounded white dove approaching him every day in the park. Tesla spent more than $ 2.000 for his treatment, including the production of special denture repairing a wing and a leg routes.
A Tesla words are attributed: "For many years I have fed thousands of pigeons. But among them was a beautiful bird, Snow white with light gray stripes on the wings, which it was different from all. She was a woman. As soon as I wanted and I called, immediately came. I loved this dove, as a man loves a woman, and she loved me. While I was with her, there was a purpose in my life. “
Engineers speak your language, to which he added another eight Tesla. He spoke fluent Serbian-Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian and Latin.
There is still no generally accepted opinion on what makes a person able to learn and use many languages. One theory, increases in testosterone levels while the fetus is in the uterus can increase the brain asymmetry, increasing the capacity of such learning. Proponents of other theories are sure to acquire the ability to speak the language has nothing to do with these factors and is simply the result of hard work and adequate reasons, that is accessible to any adult with a high level of intelligence, and even more Tesla.
9. famous Friends
Tesla often refused social events, preferring the company of his work to a party. Ma, however, He made many close friends, including many writers. Some of them have become famous all over the world.
One writer was Mark Twain. Each of the future friends became fans of the works of another very before meeting. It is interesting to note that even before the first meeting, Twain, whose word at that time was worth its weight in gold, It has characterized the invention of the Tesla induction motor as “the most valuable patents since the advent of the telephone”.
Mark Twain in Tesla's Laboratory (Tesla background).
Tesla and Twain spent much time together. When Tesla spoke of a mechanical generator that produces alternating current able to find therapeutic applications, Twain even he helped Tesla in their trials.
10. Things quirks and unnecessary
They say that Tesla has never had the jewelry she despised, considering them worthless objects. And in the last years of his life, Tesla, as it seemed to many, pearls added to the list of objects of his hatred and was disgusted with round objects.
Furthermore, at the end of his life, Tesla could not bear to touch her hair and was very shy about shaking hands.
While the eccentric inventor has pioneered advances in radio, television, engines, robotics and electricity, including the alternating current technology widely used today, also proposed more extravagant ideas. The following six futuristic visions of Nikola Tesla has not yet been made, due to technological limitations or market viability.
The machine of earthquakes
In 1893, Tesla patented a steam mechanical oscillator that vibrated up and down at high speed to generate electricity. Years after patenting his invention, told reporters that one day, as he tried to adapt his mechanical oscillator to the vibration of the building that housed his laboratory in New York, He shook the ground. During the test, Tesla continually increased the power and heard the crack sounds. Suddenly, all local heavy machinery were flying around, I grabbed a hammer and broke the car, the building would collapse in a few minutes. The police and ambulances arrived on the scene to deal with the incident, but Tesla told his assistants to tell the police that must have been an earthquake.
The camera of thoughts
Tesla believed that it was possible to photograph thoughts. The inspiration came while doing experiments in 1893. Tesla told a reporter a few decades later: I was convinced that an image defined in thinking must, for reflex action, produce an image corresponding in the retina, that can be read. The inventor has conceived the possibility of reflecting an image of an artificial retina, take a picture and project the image on a screen. If this can be done successfully, the imaginary objects from one person will be reflected clearly on the custom screen that form and in this way you can read every thought of the person. Our minds would, indeed, like open books
Nikola Tesla believed that the power of science could be used to prevent warlike actions. In 1907, The New York World reported on another military innovations Tesla in which wireless telegraphy would trigger the detonation of explosives on the high seas to generate tidal waves so large they can topple entire enemy fleets. The newspaper reported that this "man-made tsunami"; would make it unnecessary warships until they turn like paper boats that float children in bathtubs.
Airship supersonic electric
Since Tesla was a child, He was fascinated by the idea of flying. In an article published in July 1919 on Reconstruction Magazine, Tesla spoke of his work in the development of a supersonic plane that would travel eight miles above Earth's surface would generate speed that would allow passengers to travel between the city of New York and London in three hours. The concept of Tesla demanded that the aircraft be driven by electric power transmitted wirelessly from power plants to the ground, eliminating the need for aircraft to transport fuel. The power supply is virtually unlimited, since any number of stations can be operated together, providing energy to the aircraft, He said Tesla in the article.
But perhaps the most famous invention was never established ionospheric was the use of energy to provide electricity to all houses wirelessly
In 1901, Tesla got a budget by tycoon JP Morgan to build a tower in the shape of high mushroom 185 Standing on the north shore of Long Island, able to transmit messages, telephony and images to ships in the sea and in the Atlantic Ocean. When it began the construction of the structure known as Wardenclyffe Tower, Tesla wanted to adapt it to enable the delivery of wireless power, believing in his experiments in radio and microwave which could illuminate the city of New York, sending millions of volts of electricity through the air. Morgan, however, Tesla refused to grant additional funding for his great plan. Some speculate that Morgan has cut funds once you understand that Tesla's plan would have paralyzed his other interests in the energy sector. Tesla abandoned the project in 1906 before it could run again and the Wardenclyffe Tower was demolished in 1917. undoubtedly, the mind of Nikola Tesla had no limits to try to bring a benefit to mankind.
All Tesla's documents were confiscated by the FBI after his death !!
Tesla died in silence 7 January 1943 all 22:30 in room number # 3327 al 33 ° piano dell ‘Hotel New Yorker a New York City. Upon learning of the death of Tesla, the 9 January ,He ordered the FBI to the US Office of Alien Property to collect all the Tesla effect. The entire property Tesla New Yorker Hotel, and other New York hotels, It was transporting the Manhattan store. There Dr.. John G. Trump, an electrical engineer with the search committee and scientific development of the National Defense , It was called to analyze the Tesla voices in custody all'OAP.
John G. Trump (1907–1985).
Copies of Tesla's papers on particle beam were sent to the base of’ Air Force in Ohio. He was given life with an operation codenamed “Project Nick” which it was heavily funded and placed under the command of Brigadier General L. C. Craigie in order to verify the feasibility of Tesla's concepts. The details of the study were never published, and the project was apparently discontinued. But something strange happened. Some copies of Tesla's papers disappeared, and nobody knows what happened to them. The justification is that they have been lost on the go. In fact, thanks to the constant pressure of Sava Kosanović, Tesla's nephew and ambassador, the entire property Tesla was sent to Belgrade. All original documents, thousands of letters, photographs and most of Tesla's inventions including the remote-controlled boat, Wireless fluorescent lamps, engines, turbine, etc. were sent to 80 trunks marked with the inscription N.T. The FBI has made public their files on Nikola Tesla
Deliberately I not express my thoughts, Although I documented my impression is that many aspects of the question are unclear and therefore expose only the documented facts.
I leave you the choice to read up clearly and make up your mind not influenced by my personal beliefs.
Cheney, Margaret. Tesla, Man out of Time. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981.
Cheney, Margaret e Uth, Robert. Tesla, Master of Lightning. Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1999.
Garbedian, Gordon H. George Westinghouse: fabulous inventor. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1943.
Jones, Jill, Empires of Light. Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse and the race to electrify the world. Random House, New York, 2003.
O 'Neill, John J. Prodigal Genius. The life of Nikola Tesla. Ives Washburn, New York, 1944.
Seifer, Marc J. Wizard. The life and times of Nikola Tesla. Biography of a Genius. Carol Publishing Group, Secacaus, NJ, 1996.
Zaccaria, G. Pascal.Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1997.